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Energy Storage Density

Energy density - by weight and volume - for some ways to store energy

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Energy StorageTypical Energy Densities
(kJ/kg)
(MJ/m3)
Thermal Energy, low temperature Water, temperature difference 100oC to 40oC 250 250
Stone or rocks, temperature difference 100oC to 40oC 40 - 50 100 - 150
Iron, temperature difference 100oC to 40oC 30 230
Thermal Energy, high temperature Stone or rocks, temperature difference 400oC to 200oC 160 430
Iron, temperature difference 400oC to 200oC 100 800
Conventional Fuels Energy Crude Oil 42000 37000
Coal 32000 42000
Dry Wood 12500 - 20000 10000 - 16000
Synthetic Fuels Energy Hydrogen, gas 120000 - 142000 10
Hydrogen, liquid 120000 - 142000 8700
Methanol 21000 17000
Ethanol 28000 22000
Electrochemical Energy Lead-acid batteries 40 - 140 100 - 900
Nickel-cadmium batteries 350 350
Lithium ion batteries 700 1400
Mechanical Energy Hydropower, 100 m head 1 1
Compressed air   15
Flywheel, steel 30 - 120 240 - 950
Flywheel, composite materials > 200 > 100
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