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# Energy Storage Density

## Energy density - by weight and volume - for some ways to store energy

Energy Storage Density
Energy StorageTypical Energy Densities
(kJ/kg)
(MJ/m3)
Thermal Energy, low temperature Water, temperature difference 100oC to 40oC 250 250
Stone or rocks, temperature difference 100oC to 40oC 40 - 50 100 - 150
Iron, temperature difference 100oC to 40oC 30 230
Thermal Energy, high temperature Stone or rocks, temperature difference 400oC to 200oC 160 430
Iron, temperature difference 400oC to 200oC 100 800
Conventional Fuels Energy Crude Oil 42000 37000
Coal 32000 42000
Dry Wood 12500 - 20000 10000 - 16000
Synthetic Fuels Energy Hydrogen, gas 120000 - 142000 10
Hydrogen, liquid 120000 - 142000 8700
Methanol 21000 17000
Ethanol 28000 22000
Electrochemical Energy Lead-acid batteries 40 - 140 100 - 900
Nickel-cadmium batteries 350 350
Lithium ion batteries 700 1400
Mechanical Energy Hydropower, 100 m head 1 1
Compressed air   15
Flywheel, steel 30 - 120 240 - 950
Flywheel, composite materials > 200 > 100

## Related Topics

• ### Densities

Densities of solids, liquids and gases. Definitions and convertion calculators.
• ### Thermodynamics

Work, heat and energy systems.

## Related Documents

• ### Capacitors - Stored Energy

Potential power and energy stored in capacitors.
• ### Energy Accumulated in Heated Water - kWh

The amount of thermal energy stored in heated water.
• ### Flywheels - Kinetic Energy

The kinetic energy stored in flywheels - the moment of inertia.
• ### Hydropower

Power potential vs. head and flow rate.
• ### Inductors - Stored Energy

Energy stored in a magnetic field.
• ### Kinetic Energy

Energy possessed by an object's motion is kinetic energy.
• ### Lead-Acid Batteries

Specific gravity and charge of lead acid batteries - temperature and efficiency.
• ### Potential Energy - Hydropower

Elevation and potential energy in hydropower.
• ### Specific Heat of common Substances

Specific heat of products like wet mud, granite, sandy clay, quartz sand and more.
• ### Stones - Weight and Strength

Weight and strength of sandstone, granite, limestone, marble and slate.
• ### Storing Thermal Heat in Materials

Energy stored as sensible heat in materials.
• ### Units of Heat - BTU, Calorie and Joule

The most common units of heat BTU - British Thermal Unit, Calorie and Joule.

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## Citation

• The Engineering ToolBox (2008). Energy Storage Density. [online] Available at: https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/energy-density-d_1362.html [Accessed Day Month Year].

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5.16.12

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