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Speed of Sound in common Solids

Speed of sound in some common solids - like aluminum, brass, concrete and ...

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Speed of sound in normal air is 343 m/s. In water the speed of sound is 1433 m/s. Sound velocity in some common solids are indicated in the table below:

MediumVelocity(m/s)

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Aluminum,
shear - longitudinal wave
3040 - 6420
Beryllium 12890
Brass 3500 - 4700
Brick 3600 - 4200
Concrete 3200 - 3700
Copper 3560 - 3900
Cork 366 - 518
Diamond 12000
Glass 3950 - 5000
Glass, Pyrex 5640
Gold 3240
Granite 5950
Iron 3850 - 5130
Lead 1160 - 1320
Lucite 2680
Rubber, butyl 1830
Rubber 40 - 150
Silver 3650
Steel 4880 - 5050
Steel, stainless 5790
Titanium 6070
Wood (hard) 3960
Wood, longitudinal parallel with grain  3300 - 5000
  • 1 m/s = 3.6 km/h = 196.85 ft/min = 3.28 ft/s = 2.237 mph

In wood the speed of sound varies with grain direction because the transverse modulus of elasticity is as little as 1/20 the longitudinal value. The speed of sound across the grain is about one-fifth to one-third of the longitudinal value. There is no recognized independent effect of species of wood on the speed of sound. Variability in the speed of sound relates to the variability of modulus of elasticity and density.

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