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# Propagation of Sound Indoors - the Room Constant

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For a continuing sound source in a room the sound level is the sum of direct and reverberant sound. The sound pressure level for a receiver can be expressed as:

L p = L N + 10 log (D / (4 π r 2) + 4 / R)                                  (1)

where

L p = received sound pressure level (dB)

L N = sound power level from source (dB)

D = directivity coefficient (typical 1 for receivers in the middle of the room)

R = room constant (m 2 Sabin)

π = 3.14 ....

r = distance from source (m)

### Room Constant

The room constant express the acoustic property of a room.

R = A / (1- α m)

= Σ S i α i / (1- α m)                                     (2)

where

R = room constant (m 2 Sabine)

A = total room sound absorption (m 2 Sabine)

α m = mean absorption coefficient of the room

S i = individual surface area in the room (m 2)

α i = absorption coefficient for individual surface in the room

#### Example - Received Sound

The sound power generated from a machine is 90 dB. The machine is located in a room with total sound aborption 12.2 m 2 Sabine and mean absorption coefficient 0.2.

The room constant can be calculated as

R = (12.2 m 2) / (1 - 0.2)

= 15.3 m 2 Sabine

For a receiver located in the middle of the room with a directivity coefficient 1 and distance 2 m from the source - the received  sound pressure level can calculated as

L p = (90 dB) + 10 log (1 / (4 π (2 m) 2) + 4 / (15.3 m 2 Sabine ))

= 84.8 dB

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## Related Topics

### • Acoustics

Room acoustics and acoustic properties, decibel A, B and C, Noise Rating (NR) curves, sound transmission, sound pressure, sound intensity and sound attenuation.

### • Noise and Attenuation

Noise is usually defined as unwanted sound - noise, noise generation, silencers and attenuation in HVAC systems.

## Related Documents

### Maximum Sound Pressure Levels in Rooms

Maximum recommended sound pressure levels in rooms like kindergartens, auditoriums, libraries, cinemas and more.

### Noise from Machines - Enclosures and Sound Pressure Level Reductions

Barriers and enclosures to reduce noise sound pressure levels from machines.

### Sound - Attenuation and the Directivity Coefficient

The attenuation in a room depends on the location of the sound source and the receiver - and the room constant.

### Sound - Reverberation Time

The sound reverberation time indicates how long it takes until the sound pressure level in a room is decreased with 60 dB.

### Sound - Room Absorption Characteristics

Mean absorption coefficients and reverberation times in typical rooms.

### Sound - Room Absorption Coefficients

Room sound absorption and absorption coefficients for common materials like plaster walls, brickwork, plywood panels and more.

### Sound - Room Attenuation in Direct Sound Fields

Room size, absorption characteristics - and attenuation in direct sound fields.

### Sound Intensity

Acoustic power of sound per unit area.

### Sound Pressure

Sound Pressure is the force of sound on a surface perpendicular to the propagation of sound.

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