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# Solar System Constants

## Properties and data for the Sun, the Earth and the Moon.

### Earth

• mass : 5.98 x 1024 kg
• radius : 6.38 x 106 m
• period of orbit : 365.3 days
• radius of orbit : 149 x 109 m
• acceleration of gravity : 9.81 m/s2 = 35 kph/s = 22 mph/s = 32 feet/s2
• escape velocity : 11.2 x 103 m/s
• mean surface temperature : 288 K
• surface pressure : 1.014 bar

### Jupiter

• mass : 1.9 x 1027 kg
• radius : 71.5 x 106 m
• acceleration of gravity : 25 m/s2
• escape velocity : 57.5 x 103 m/s
• mean surface temperature : 163 K
• surface pressure : >> 1000 bar

### Mars

• mass : 6.42 x 1023 kg
• radius : 3.4 x 106 m
• acceleration of gravity : 3.7 m/s2
• escape velocity : 5.1 x 103 m/s
• mean surface temperature : 208 K
• surface pressure : 0.007 bar

### Mercury

• mass : 3.3 x 1023 kg
• radius : 2.44 x 106 m
• acceleration of gravity : 3.7 m/s2
• escape velocity : 4.3 x 103 m/s
• mean surface temperature : 440 K
• surface pressure : 1 10-15 bar

### Moon

• mass : 7.35 x 1022 kg
• radius : 1.74 x 106 m
• period of orbit : 27.3 days
• radius of orbit : 0.38 x 109 m
• acceleration of gravity : aprox. 1/6 of acceleration of gravity on the earth ≈ 1.6 m/s2
• escape velocity : 2.4 x 103 m/s

### Neptune

• mass : 1.02 x 1026 kg
• radius : 24.8 x 106 m
• acceleration of gravity : 11 m/s2
• escape velocity : 24.4 x 103 m/s
• mean surface temperature : 73 K

### Pluto

• mass : 1.30 x 1022 kg
• radius : 1.18 x 106 m
• acceleration of gravity : 0.62 m/s2
• mean surface temperature : 48 K

### Saturn

• mass : 5.69 x 1026 kg
• radius : 60.3 x 106 m
• acceleration of gravity : 10 m/s2
• escape velocity : 35.4 x 103 m/s
• mean surface temperature : 133 K
• surface pressure : >> 1000 bar

### Sun

• mass : 1.989 x 1030 kg
• diameter : 1390 x 106 m
• mean distance from the earth to the sun : approximately 1.5 × 1011 m, the Astronomical Unit - AU
• mean distance from the sun to Mars : 1.5 AU
• mean distance from the sun to Jupiter: 5.2 AU
• mean distance from the sun to Pluto: 40 AU
• distance to the star nearest the sun Proxima Centauri: 270,000 AU
• acceleration of gravity : 270 m/s2
• escape velocity : 618 x 103 m/s

### Uranus

• mass : 8.68 x 1025 kg
• radius : 25.6 x 106 m
• acceleration of gravity : 8.9 m/s2
• escape velocity : 21.9 x 103 m/s
• mean surface temperature : 78 K
• surface pressure : >> 1000 bar

### Venus

• mass : 4.87 x 1024 kg
• radius : 6.05 x 106 m
• acceleration of gravity : 8.9 m/s2
• escape velocity : 10.3 x 103 m/s
• mean surface temperature : 737 K
• surface pressure : 90 bar

### Outside the Solar System

• mass of a neutron star : 2.8 - 6 x 1030 kg
• mass of a black hole : > 6 x 1030 kg
• mass of the Milky Way : 1.5 - 2 x 1042 kg
• mass of the observable university : ≈ 1053 kg

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## Unit Converters

Temperature

oC
oF

Length

m
km
in
ft
yards
miles
naut miles

Area

m2
km2
in2
ft2
miles2
acres

Volume

m3
liters
in3
ft3
us gal

Weight

kgf
N
lbf

Velocity

m/s
km/h
ft/min
ft/s
mph
knots

Pressure

Pa (N/m2)
bar
mm H2O
kg/cm2
psi
inches H2O

Flow

m3/s
m3/h
US gpm
cfm

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