Calculate expected load in sanitary drainage systems
The theoretical total load for a sanitary drainage system can be calculated by adding loads for every fixture in the system. Due to intermittent use of the fixtures - this method in general adds up to unrealistic high values for the main drainage lines.
- realistic - or expected - total load is always lower than theoretical total load
Expected total load for sanitary drainage systems should instead be estimated by using empirical equations like
qet = k ( Σqn )1/2 (1)
qet = expected total drainage load (gpm, l/s)
k = system coefficient describing the nature of the system
Σqn = total theoretical load - all fixtures summarized (gpm, l/s)
Note that the minimum expected total load can never be less than the load from the largest fixture.
The system coefficient compensates for the nature of the system. For systems serving large groups of people where the use is intermittent, like
- wardrobes in factories
the coefficient - k - should be in the range 0.5 - 0.8. Closer to 0.8 for smaller systems with fewer fixtures and closer to 0.5 for larger systems with many fixtures.
For more ordinary systems where consumption patterns are more continuously, like
- nursing homes
the coefficient - k - should be in the range 0.3 - 0.6. Closer to 0.3 for larger systems with many fixtures and closer to 0.6 for smaller systems with few fixtures.
Example - Sanitary Drainage System Hospital
If the theoretical total load from fixtures in a smaller hospital adds up to 50 l/s - the expected total load can be estimated to
qet = 0.7 (50 l/s)1/2
= 4.9 l/s
Assuming this is a smaller hospital the coefficient is set to 0.7.