Hot-water systems can be classified by operating temperature into three groups
- low temperature - LTW
- medium temperature - MTW
- high temperature - HTW
Low Temperature Hot-Water Heating System - LTW
- operates within a temperature of 250oF (121oC). The maximum allowable working pressure for a LTW system is usual 30 psi (2 bar).
- LTW systems are in general used for space heating in homes, residential buildings, offices, local distribution of district heating systems and similar.
Medium Temperature Hot-Water Heating System - MTW
- MTW systems operates at a temperature of 350oF (177oC) or less. The maximum allowable working pressure for a MTW system is usual 150 psi (10.5 bar)
- MTW systems are often used in large hot-water distribution systems like district heating, and in systems where process applications requires higher temperatures than achievable by LTW systems
High Temperature Hot-Water Heating System - HTW
- HTW systems operates at temperatures exceeding 350oF (177oC) or more. The maximum operating pressure for a HTW system is usual less than 300 psi (20.7 bar).
- HTW systems are used like MTW systems in large distribution and process application systems.
Heating systems - capacity and design of boilers, pipelines, heat exchangers, expansion systems and more.
Water temperature and heating capacity.
The density difference between hot and cold water is the circulating force in a self circulating gravity heating system.
Safety valves with boilers ranging 275 to 1500 kW.
Hot water heating temperatures adapts to outdoor temperatures.
Free online design tool for designing hot water heating systems - metric units.
Online design tool for hot water heating systems.
Pressure loss nomogram for hot water steel pipes.
An introduction to the basic design of steam heating systems.