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# Outdoor Supply Air Rates

The rates of outdoor make-up or supply air in the table below can be used as a guideline in the design of ventilation systems.

### Air Shifts

Air shift is the number of times the air in a room is replaced by supply air per hour and can be expressed as

n = q / V                    (1)

where

n = air shifts (1/h)

q = supply air to the room (m3 /h)

V = room volume (m3 )

#### Example - Air Shifts

The air supply to a room with volume 10 m 3 is 5 m3 /h . The air shifts can be calculated

n = ( 5 m3 /h ) / ( 10 m3 )

= 0.5 1/h

.

### Recommended Supply Air to some typical Rooms

Outdoor Supply Air Rates

Type of Building and Room
Air Shifts
- n -
(1/h)
Supply Air flow
( l/s per m2
floor area)
Supply Air Flow
(l/s)
Animals Sheep 3 per animal
Horses 40 per animal
Hens 3 per animal
Cows 100 per animal
Chickens 2 per animal
Pigs, sow 60 per animal
Piglet 15 per animal
Apartments 15 per person
Assembly halls 5 - 10 10 - 15 per person
Auditoriums 10 - 15 per person
Bakeries Production 8
Pastry room 6
Banks Service 2 - 3
Archive 1
Staff 2 - 3
Baths 5 - 8 15
Barber Shops 10 - 15 per person
Bars 15 - 20 per person
Beauty Shops 10 - 15 per person
Bowling Alleys 10 - 15 per person
Cafeterias 4 10 - 15 per person
Cinemas/Theaters 5 - 10 7 - 10 per person
Chemist's shops Sterile room 15
Laboratory 15
Packing room 4
Store 1
Churches 2 10 per person
Clubhouses 15 - 20 per person
Cocktail Lounges 15 - 20 per person
Computer Rooms 10 - 15 per person
Court Houses 10 - 15 per person
Dance halls 15 - 20 per person
Dental Clinics, Offices 10 - 15 per person
Department Stores (cfm/Sq.Ft) 0.3
Dining Halls 10 - 15 per person
Drug Shop 10 - 15 per person
Engine rooms 4
Exhibition halls 10 - 20
Fire Stations 10 - 15 per person
Garages 5 - 6 > 1
Hospitals General 15 per person
Therapy 9
Operating theater 14
Autopsy 9
Hotels Reception 15 - 20 per person
Room 3
Industries Factory 10 - 20 per person
Carpenter work shop 2 - 5
Car repair shop 4
Car repair shop, exhaust outlet 60 - 80 per car
Mechanical work shop 3 - 4
Welding 12 - 15
Assembly 4 - 5
Jails 10 - 15 per person
Jewelry Shop 10 - 15 per person
Libraries 10 - 15 per person
Lift Shaft (Lift Car) 8 - 10
Lunch Rooms, Luncheonettes 10 - 15 per person
Municipal Buildings 10 - 15 per person
Museums 10 - 15 per person
Smithies

6 - 7

Kitchens Small 20 - 40
Large 10 - 20
< 7 m2 15
> 7 m2 20
Industrial in general 25 - 30
Gas ovens 550/m2outside wall
Electric ovens 300/m2outside wall
Grill table 400/m2outside wall
Frying pan 300
Boiling pan 100 l 100
Boiling pan 200 l 200
Coffee machine 60
Refrigerated cabinet 7 - 10
Cooling and freezer room 0.3 - 0.5
Store 2 - 4
Laundries 10 - 15
Lavatories 5 - 10 10
Night Clubs 15 - 25 per person
Malls 10 - 15 per person
Motels 15 - 20 per person
Offices Module 3 - 8 10 - 20 per person
Landscape 10 - 20 per person
Conference room 15 - 30 per person
Lecture room 10 - 20 per person
Dining hall 15 - 25 per person
Staff, changing clothes 8 - 12
Dining room 8 - 10
Resting room 15 per person
Police Stations 10 - 15 per person
Post Offices 10 - 15 per person
Precision Manufacturing 10 - 15 per person
Restaurants 5 - 10 10 10 - 15 per person
Retail Stores (cfm/Sq.Ft) 0.3
Schools Classroom 4 - 5 10 - 15 per person
Shops 10 - 15 per person
Shopping Centers 10 - 15 per person
Sports halls 3 - 4
Supermarkets 10 per person
Swimming pools 5 - 10
Taverns 10 - 15 per person
Town Halls 10 - 15 per person
• 1 dm3 (liter)/s = 10-3 m3 /s = 3.6 m3 /h = 0.03532 ft3 /s = 2.1189 ft3 /min (cfm) = 13.200 Imp.gal (UK)/min = 15.852 gal (US)/min = 792 Imp. gal (UK)/h
.

### Smoking or Not Smoking versus Recommended Supply Air

Smoking has a dramatic impact on required make up air ( Chartered Institution of Building Service Engineers , CIBSE Guide B2):

Outdoor Supply Air Rates vs. Smoking
Level of SmokingProportion of occupants that smoke
(%)
Supply Air
(liter/s person)
No smoking 0 8
Some smoking 25 16
Heavy smoking 45 24
Very heavy smoking 75 36

### Recommended Residential Air Ventilation

Recommended outdoor air supply according ASHRAE 62.2:

Outdoor Supply Air Rates - Residential Air Ventilation
Air Flow (cfm)
Floor Area
(ft2)

Bedrooms
0 - 12 - 34 - 56 - 7> 7
< 1500 30 45 60 75 90
1501 - 3000 45 60 75 90 105
3001 - 4500 60 75 90 105 120
4501 - 6000 75 90 105 120 135
6001 - 7500 90 105 120 135 150
> 7500 105 120 135 150 165

## Related Topics

### • Ventilation Systems

Design of systems for ventilation and air handling - air change rates, ducts and pressure drops, charts and diagrams and more.

## Related Documents

### Air Change Rate

Calculate air change rates - equations in imperial and SI units.

### Air Change Rates in typical Rooms and Buildings

Fresh air (make up air) rquirements - or recommended air change rates (ACH) for typical rooms and buildings like auditoriums, kitchens, churches and more.

### Heat Recovery Efficiency

Classification of heat recovery efficiencies - temperature efficiency, moisture efficiency and enthalpy efficiency - online heat exchanger efficiency calculator.

### Outdoor Makeup Air

Acceptable indoor air quality and required make up air.

### Pollution Concentration in Rooms

Concentration of a pollution in a limited space as a room depends on the amount of polluted material spread in the room, supply of fresh air, outlets positions and construction, principles used for supply and outlet from the space.

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