Corrosion of steel is strongly affected by the amount of oxygen in the water and the temperature of the water. The effects of oxygen and temperature on low-carbon steel pipes with water flow are indicated in the diagrams below:
- 1 mm = 0.03937 in
- T(oF) = [T(oC)](9/5) + 32
- 1 ppm = 1 mg/liter
The diagrams indicates clearly how important it is to avoid continuously fresh water supply in higher temperature systems - like heating systems or similar - where the piping is made of carbon steel.
Corrosion in piping systems caused by thermodynamic and electrochemical processes - corrosion problems and methods of protection and prevention.
Pipe sizes, inside and outside diameters, wall thickness, schedules, weight and weight of pipe filled with water - Metric Units.
Introduction to electro chemical series and corrosion of metals.
Common metals and their corrosion resistance to aggressive fluids like acids, bases and more.
Galvanic series of metals in seawater.
Online calculator, figures and tables showing density and specific weight of oxygen, O2, at varying temperature and pressure - Imperial and SI Units.
Solubility of oxygen in equilibration with air in fresh water and seawater (salt water) - pressures ranging 1 - 4 bar abs.
Chemical, Physical and Thermal Properties of Oxygen - O2.
Specific heat of Oxygen Gas - O2 - at temperatures ranging 175 - 6000 K.
ppm - or parts per million - is commonly used as a unit of concentration.
A corrosion protection tutorial for piping systems.
Uniform, pitting, galvanic, crevice, concentration cell and graphitic types of corrosion.