Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications!

This is an AMP page - Open full page! for all features.

Instruments

Devices communicating physical properties to observers

Sponsored Links

An instrument can be defined as a device that communicates a physical property to an observer. The observer can be a data acquisition system, a process control system and/or in the end a human observer.

Physical Property - Measured Medium

Typical properties to measure are temperature, speed, flow .. and many more.

Some properties - like temperature - are relatively easy to measure. Others - like blood sugar - requires more advanced sensor technology.   

Transducer

The transducer senses the physical variable to be measured - and converts the physical value to a suitable signal. 

Example: a RTD - Resistance Temperature Detector - that indicates temperature with electrical resistance.

Example: a tachometer that indicates revolutions with electrical pulses from a magnetic sensor.

Signal Conditioning

The signal created by the transducer may need an adaption before transmission - like

  • integration
  • amplifying or attenuation
  • converting to digital or analog signal 

Transmitter

The transmitter responsibility is to connect and communicate the instrument value to the control or data acquisition system. The transmitter communication is based on standardized protocols and signal levels. Typical analog values are 4-20 mA for electrical communication or 3-15 psi for pneumatic systems. 

Data Acquisition or Control System

 A data acquisition typically accumulates value for historical use or to build or run empirical models.

Example - measured air pressure used to predict next days weather.

A control system use the values for process control.

Example - temperature measured in the outlet of an heat-exchanger used to control the heat-exchanger steam supply valve. 

Observer

The observer can be a human or an artificial intelligence system.

Sponsored Links

Related Topics

Related Documents

Sponsored Links

Share

Search Engineering ToolBox

  • the most efficient way to navigate the Engineering ToolBox!

SketchUp Extension - Online 3D modeling!

Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro .Add the Engineering ToolBox extension to your SketchUp from the Sketchup Extension Warehouse!

Privacy

We don't collect information from our users. Only emails and answers are saved in our archive. Cookies are only used in the browser to improve user experience.

Some of our calculators and applications let you save application data to your local computer. These applications will - due to browser restrictions - send data between your browser and our server. We don't save this data.

Google use cookies for serving our ads and handling visitor statistics. Please read Google Privacy & Terms for more information about how you can control adserving and the information collected.

AddThis use cookies for handling links to social media. Please read AddThis Privacy for more information.

Topics

Unit Converters

Temperature

oC
oF


Load Calculator!

Length

m
km
in
ft
yards
miles
naut miles


Load Calculator!

Area

m2
km2
in2
ft2
miles2
acres


Load Calculator!

Volume

m3
liters
in3
ft3
us gal


Load Calculator!

Weight

kgf
N
lbf


Load Calculator!

Velocity

m/s
km/h
ft/min
ft/s
mph
knots


Load Calculator!

Pressure

Pa (N/m2)
bar
mm H2O
kg/cm2
psi
inches H2O


Load Calculator!

Flow

m3/s
m3/h
US gpm
cfm


Load Calculator!

10 11

This website use cookies. By continuing to browse you are agreeing to our use of cookies! Learn more