Metals and Corrosion Resistance

Common metals and their corrosion resistance to aggressive fluids like acids, bases and more

A major problem in process industry is corrosion of metals in pipes, valves and other parts of the constructions. Acceptable combinations of more or less aggressive fluids and commonly used materials are indicated below.

Note! Remember that corrosion is a complicated issue, depending on the combinations of materials and the fluids, the fluid temperatures, the surrounding environment and the galvanic currents in constructions. The table below must be used with care. Always check with the producer of the material.

Corrosion Resistance 1)Good 2)Be Careful 3)Not Useable
Fluid Metal
Carbon Steel Cast Iron 302 and 304 Stainless Steel 316 Stainless Steel Bronze Durimet Monel Hasteloy B Hasteloy C Titanium Cobalt base alloy 6 416 Stainless Steel
Acetaldehyde 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 na 1 na na 1
Acetic acid, air free 3 3 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 3
Acetic acid, aerated 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3
Acetic acid, vapors 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 na 1 1 1 3
Acetone 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Acetylene 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 na 1 1
Alcohols 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Aluminum Sulfate 3 3 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 na 3
Ammonia 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1
Ammonium chloride 3 3 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 3
Ammonium Nitrate 1 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 3
Ammonium Phosphate 4 3 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2
Ammonium Sulfate 3 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3
Ammonium Sulfite 3 3 1 1 3 1 3 na 1 1 1 2
Aniline 3 3 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 3
Asphalt 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 na 1 1
Beer 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Benzene (benzol) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Benzoic acid 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Boric acid 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Butane 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Calcium Chloride (alkaline) 2 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 na 3
Calcium hypochlorite 3 3 2 2 2 1 2 3 1 1 na 3
Carbolic acid 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Carbon dioxide, dry 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Carbon dioxide, wet 3 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Carbon disulfide 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 2
Carbon tetrachloride 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 na 3
Carbonic acid 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
Chlorine gas 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 3
Chlorine gas, wet 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 2 3
Chlorine, liquid 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 1 3 2 3
Chromic acid 3 3 3 2 3 3 1 3 1 1 2 3
Citric acid 3 3 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2
Coke oven gas 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
Copper sulfate 3 3 2 2 2 1 3 na 1 1 na 1
Cottonseed oil 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Creosote 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1
Ethane 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Ether 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Ethyl chloride 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Ethylene 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Ethylene glycol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 na na na 1 1
Ferric chloride 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 2 3
Formaldehyde 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Formic acid 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 3
R-12 dichlorodifluoromethane wet 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 na
R-12 dichlorodifluoromethane dry 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 na
Furfural 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Gasoline 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Glucose 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Hydrochloric acid, aerated 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 1/2 2 3
Hydrochloric acid, air free 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 1/2 2 3
Hydrofluoric acid, aerated 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 1 1 3 2 3
Hydrofluoric acid, air free 1 3 3 2 3 2 1 1 1 3 na 3
Hydrogen 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Hydrogen peroxide 2 1 1 3 1 3 2 2 1 na 2
Hydrogen sulfide, liquid 3 3 1 1 3 2 3 1 1 1 1 3
Magnesium Hydroxide 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Mercury 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
Methanol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Methyl ethyl ketone 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Milk 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3
Natural gas 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Nitric acid 3 3 1 2 3 1 3 3 2 1 3 3
Oleic acid 3 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Oxalic acid 3 3 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2
Oxygen 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Petroleum oils 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Phosphoric acid, aerated 3 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 2 1 3
Phosphoric acid, air free 3 3 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 3
Phosphoric acid vapors 3 3 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 3 3
Picric acid 3 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 na na 2
Potassium chloride 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 na 3
Potassium hydroxide 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 na 2
Propane 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Rosin 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Silver Nitrate 3 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 2 2
Sodium acetate 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Sodium carbonate 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Sodium chloride 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Sodium chromate 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Sodium hydroxide 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Sodium hypochloride 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 1 1 na 3
Sodium thiosulfate 3 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 na 2
Stannous chloride 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 na 3
Stearic acid 1 3 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2
Sulfate liquor 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1
Sulfur 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Sulfur dioxide, dry 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2
Sulfur trioxide, dry 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2
Sulfuric acid, aerated 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 1 1 2 2 3
Sulfuric acid, air free 3 3 3 3 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 3
Sulfurous acid 3 3 2 2 2 1 3 1 1 1 2 3
Tar 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Trichloroethylene 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Turpentine 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
Vinegar 3 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 na 1 3
Water, steam boiler feeding system 2 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Water, distilled 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
Water, sea 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3
Whiskey 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3
Wine 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3
Zinc chloride 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 1 1 1 2 3
Zinc sulfate 3 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
  • na - data not available

Related Topics

  • Control Valves - Control Valve terminology, bodies, trim, flow characteristics, Cv and Kv sizing, noise, actuators and positioners
  • Corrosion - Corrosion in piping systems - caused by thermodynamic and electrochemical processes - corrosion problems and methods of protection and prevention
  • Design Strategies - Piping systems and design strategies - documentation, P&ID, flow diagrams - capacities and limits
  • Material Properties - Material properties for gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more

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