# Volume Flow in Sanitary Drainage Systems

## Calculate expected load in sanitary drainage systems

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The* theoretical total load* for a sanitary drainage system can be calculated by adding loads for every fixture in the system. Due to intermittent use of the fixtures - this method in general adds up to unrealistic high values for the main drainage lines.

*realistic - or expected - total load*is always lower than*theoretical total load*

*Expected total load* for sanitary drainage systems should instead be estimated by using empirical equations like

q_{et}= k ( Σq_{n })^{1/2}(1)

where

q_{et}= expected total drainage load (gpm, l/s)

k = system coefficient describing the nature of the system

Σq_{n }= total theoretical load - all fixtures summarized (gpm, l/s)

Note that the minimum expected total load can never be less than the load from the largest fixture.

The system coefficient compensates for the nature of the system. For systems serving large groups of people where the use is intermittent, like

- hotels
- hospitals
- schools
- theaters
- wardrobes in factories
- etc

the coefficient - *k* - should be in the range *0.5 - 0.8*. Closer to *0.8* for smaller systems with fewer fixtures and closer to *0.5* for larger systems with many fixtures.

For more ordinary systems where consumption patterns are more continuously, like

- homes
- offices
- nursing homes

the coefficient - *k* - should be in the range *0.3 - 0.6*. Closer to *0.3* for larger systems with many fixtures and closer to *0.6* for smaller systems with few fixtures.

### Example - Sanitary Drainage System Hospital

If the *theoretical total load* from fixtures in a smaller hospital adds up to *50 l/s -* the *expected total load* can be estimated to

q_{et}= 0.7 (50 l/s)^{1/2}

= 4.9 l/s

Assuming this is a smaller hospital the coefficient is set to *0.7*.

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- en: sanitary drainage load flow
- es: flujo de carga drenaje sanitario
- de: sanitÃ¤re Kanalisation Lastfluss