Several methods are used to rate heat pump performance and efficiency
The Coefficient of Performance - COP - is the ratio of heat output to the amount of energy input of a heat pump.
COP can be expressed as
COP = hh / hw (1)
COP = Coefficient of Performance
hh = heat produced (Btu/h)
hw = equivalent electric energy input (Btu/h) = 3413 Pw
Pw = electrical input energy (W)
If a heat pump delivers 3 units of heat for every unit of energy input - the COP is 3.
A heat pump delivering 60000 Btu/h with a total input of 9 kW:
COP = 60000 (Btu/h) / (3413 9 (kW))
A heat pump delivering 50000 Btu/h with a total input of 7 kW:
COP = 50000 (Btu/h) / (3413 7 (kW))
The Energy Efficiency Ratio - EER - measures the cooling efficiency of a heat pump.
EER can be expressed as
EER = hc / Pw (2)
EER = Energy Efficiency Rating
hc = cooling heat (Btu/h)
Pw = electrical power (W)
An air conditioner or heat pump in cooling modus draws 1000 W to produce 10000 Btu/h cooling. The EER can be calculated as
EER = 10000 (Btu/h) / 1000 (W)
The Heating Season Performance Factor - HSPF - is a measure of the overall heating efficiency of a heat pump during a season.
HSPF = hs / 1000 Pws (3)
hs = heat produced during the season (Btu)
Pws = electrical power consumed during the season (kWh)
The HSPF can be regarded as an "average" COP for an entire heating season. It is common to compare BTUs of heat output to watts of electrical energy input. HSPF of 6.8 can be compared with an average COP of 2 and a HSPF in the range of 5-7 is acceptable.
For a heat pump delivering 120,000,000 Btu during the season when consuming 15,000 kWh the HSPF can be calculated as
HSPF = 120000000 (Btu) / (1000 15000 (kWh))
Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio is a measure of the seasonal cooling efficiency of a heat pump or a consumer central air conditioning system.
The SEER should be at least 13 to be sold in the United States. SEER above 20 is a very efficient system.