Elements of the Periodic System

The elements of the periodic system with names, symbols, atomic numbers and weights, melting and boiling points, density, electronegativity and electron affinity, and electron configuration

Figures and tables showing the elements from the periodic table - their name, symbol, atomic number, average atomic weight, state at 273 K, melting and boiling point, density at standard temperature and pressure, electronegativity, electron affinity, electron configuration and first ionisation energy.

Average atomic mass is the same number as molar mass, however, the unit for molar mass is g/mol.

For elements without stable isotops, the mass number for the isotop with the longest half-life is given in parenthesis.

Molar mass and density of elements

Melting and boiling point of elements

1stIonization  and electron affinity of elements

Electronegativity and electron affinity of elements

Element NameElement SymbolAtomic NumberAvarage atomic Mass1)
(u)
State at 273 KMelting point2)
(°K/°C/°F)
Boiling point3
(°K/°C/°F)
Density at stp4)
(g/cm3)
Electro-negativity5)Electron affinity6)
(kJ/mole)
Electron configuration
per shell7)
(#)
1st ionisation
energy8
(kJ/mol)
Actinium Ac 89 (227) Solid 1323/1059/1922 3473/3200/5792 10.07 1.1 2,8,18,32,18,9,2 499
Aluminum Al 13 26.981538 Solid 933/660/1221 2792/2519/4566 2.70 1.61 42.5 2,8,3 577.5
Americium Am 95 (243) Solid 1449/1176/214 2284/2011/3652 1.3 2,8,18,32,25,8,2 578
Antimony (Stibium) Sb 51 121.760 Solid 904/631/1167 1860/1587/2888 6.697 2.05 103.2 2,8,18,18,5 834
Argon Ar 18 39.948 Gas 84/ -189/ -309 87/-186/-303 0.001784 0 2,8,8 1520.6
Arsenic As 33 74.92160 Solid 1090/817/1502 887/614/1137 5.727 2.18 78 2,8,18,5 1350.8
Astatine At 85 (210) Solid 575/302/575 610/337/638 2.2 270.1 2,8,18,32,18,7 890
Barium Ba 56 137.327 Solid 1000/727/1340 2143/1870/3398 3.510 0.89 13.95 2,8,18,18,8,2 502.9
Berkelium Bk 97 (247) Solid 1323/1050/1922 14.780 1.3 2,8,18,32,27,8,2 601
Beryllium Be 4 9.012182 Solid 1560/1287/2348 2743/2470/4478 1.848 1.57 0 2,2 899.5
Bismuth Bi 83 208.98038 Solid 544/271/520 1837/1564/2847 9.780 2.02 91.2 2,8,18,32,18,5 703
Boron B 5 10.811 Solid 2348/2075/3767 4273/4000/7232 2.460 2.04 26.7 2,3 800.6
Bromine Br 35 79.904 Liquid 266/-7/19 332/59/138 3.120 2.96 324.6 2,8,18,7 1139.9
Cadmium Cd 48 112.411 Solid 594/21/610 1040/767/1412 8.650 1.69 0 2,8,18,18,2 867.8
Calcium Ca 20 40.078 Solid 1115/842/1547 1757/1484/2703 1.550 1.0 2.37 2,8,8,2 589.8
Californium Cf 98 (251) Solid 1173/900/1652 15.10 1.3 2,8,18,32,28,8,2 608
Carbon C 6 12.0107 Solid 3823/3550/6422 4300/4027/7280 2.260 2.55 153.9 2,4 1086.5
Cerium Ce 58 140.116 Solid 1071/798/1468 3633/3360/6080 6.689 1.12 50 2,8,18,19,9,2 534.4
Cesium Cs 55 132.90545 Solid 302/28/83 944/671/1240 1.879 0.79 45.5 2,8,18,18,8,1 375.7
Chlorine Cl 17 35.453 Gass 172/-102/-151 239/-34/-29 0.003214 3.16 349 2,8,7 1251.2
Chromium Cr 24 51.9961 Solid 2180/1907/3464 2944/2671/4840 7.140 1.66 64.3 2,8,13,1 652.9
Cobalt Co 27 58.933200 Solid 1768/1495/2723 3200/2927/5300 8.900 1.88 63.7 2,8,15,2 760.4
Copper Cu 29 63.546 Solid 1358/1085/1984 2835/2562/4643 8.920 1.90 118.4 2,8,18,1 745.5
Curium Cm 96 (247) Solid 1618/1345/2453 3383/3110/5630 13.510 1.3 2,8,18,32,25,9,2 581
Dysprosium Dy 66 162.50 Solid 1629/1356/2473 3503/3230/5846 8.219 50 2,8,18,27,8,2 565.8
Einsteinium Es 99 (252) Solid 1133/860/1580 1.3 2,8,18,32,29,8,2 619
Erbium Er 68 167.259 Solid 1770/1497/2726 3141/2868/5194 9.066 1.24 50 2,8,18,30,8,2 589.3
Europium Eu 63 151.964 Solid 1095/822/1511 1800/1527/2780 5.244 50 2,8,18,25,8,2 547.1
Fermium Fm 100 (257) Solid 1800/1527/2780 1.3 2,8,18,32,30,8,2 627
Fluorine F 9 18.9984032 Gas 53/-220/-364 85/-188/-307 0.001696 3.98 328 2,7 1681.0
Francium Fr 87 (223) Solid 300/27/80 950/677/1250 0.7 2,8,18,32,18,8,1 380
Gadolinium Gd 64 157.25 Solid 1586/1313/2395 3523/3250/5882 7.01 1.2 50 2,8,18,25,9,2 593.4
Gallium Ga 31 69.723 Solid 303/30/86

2477/2204/3999

5.904 1.81 28.9 2,8,18,3 578.8
Germanium Ge 32 72.64 Solid 1211/938/1721 3093/2820/5108 5.23 2.01 119 2,8,18,4 762
Gold (Aurum) Au 79 196.96655 Solid 1337/1064/1948 3129/2856/5173 19.300 2.54 222.8 2,8,18,32,18,1 890.1
Hafnium Hf 72 178.49 Solid 2506/2233/4051 4876/4603/8317 13.310 1.3 0 2,8,18,32,10,2 658.5
Helium He 2 4.002602 Gas 0/-273/-460 4/-269/-452 0.0001785 0 2 2372.3
Holmium Ho 67 164.93032 Solid 1936/1663/3025 3675/3402/6155 9.841 1.27 50 2,8,18,29,8,2 581.0
Hydrogen H 1 1.00794 Gas 14/-259/-434 20/-253/-423 0.0000899 2.20 72.5 1 1312.0
Indium In 49 114.818 Solid 430/157/314 2345/2072/3761 7.310 1.78 28.9 2,8,18,18,3 558.3
Iodine I 53 126.90447 Solid 387/114/237 457/184/364 4.940 2.66 295.2 2,8,18,18,7 1008.4
Iridium Ir 77 192.217 Solid 2739/2466/4471 4701/4428/8002 22.650 2.20 151 2,8,18,32,15,2 880
Iron (Ferrum) Fe 26 55.845 Solid 1811/1538/2800

3434/2861/5182

7.874 1.83 157 2,8,14,2 762.5
Krypton Kr 36 83.798 Gas 116/-157/-251 120/-153/-244 0.00375 3.0 0 2,8,18,8 1358.8
Lanthanum La 57 138.9055 Solid 1193/920/1688 3737/3464/6267 6.146 1.10 48 2,8,18,18,9,2 538.1
Lawrencium Lr 103 (262) Solid 1900/1628/2960 2,8,18,32,32,8,3 470
Lead (Plumbum) Pb 82 207.2 Solid 601/327/621 2022/1749/3180 11.340 2.33 35.1 2,8,18,32,18,4 715.6
Lithium Li 3 6.941 Solid 454/181/357 1615/1342/2447 0.535 0.98 59.6 2,1 520.2
Lutetium Lu 71 174.967 Solid 1936/1663/3025 3675/3402/6155 9.841 1.27 50 2,8,18,32,9,2 523.5
Magnesium Mg 12 24.3050 Solid 923/650/1202 1363/1090/1994 1.738 1.31 0 2,8,2 737.7
Manganese Mn 25 54.9380 Solid 1519/1246/2275 2334/2061/3742 7.470 1.55 0 2,8,13,2 717.3
Mendelevium Md 101 (258) Solid 1100/827/1520 1.3 2,8,18,32,31,8,2 635
Mercury (Hydrargyrum) Hg 80 200.59 Liquid 234/-39/-38 630/357/674 13.534 2.0 0 2,8,18,32,18,2 1007.1
Molybdenum Mo 42 95.94 Solid 2896/2623/4753 4912/4639/8382 10.280 2.16 71.9 2,8,18,13,1 684.3
Neodymium Nd 60 144.24 Solid 1294/1021/1870 3373/3100/5612 7.010 1.14 50 2,8,18,22,8,2 533.1
Neon Ne 10 20.1797 Gas 25/-249/-415 27/-246/-411 0.0009 0 2,8 2080.7
Neptunium Np 93 (237) Solid 917/644/1191 4273/4000/7232 20.450 1.36 2,8,18,32,22,9,2 604.5
Nickel Ni 28 58.6934 Solid 1728/1455/2651 3186/2913/5275 8.908 1.91 112 2.8.16.2 737.1
Niobium (Columbium) Nb 41 92.90638 Solid 2750/2477/4490 5017/4744/8571 8.570 1.6 86.1 2,8,18,12,1 652.1
Nitrogen N 7 14.0067 Gas 63/-210/-346 77/-196/-320 0.001251 3.04 7 2,5 1402.3
Nobelium No 102 (259) Solid 1100/827/1520 1.3 2,8,18,32,32,8,2 642
Osmium Os 76 190.23 Solid 3306/303/5491 5285/5012/9053 22.610 2.2 106.1 2,8,18,32,14,2 840
Oxygen O 8 15.9994 Gas 55/-218/-361 90/-183/-297 0.001429 3.44 144 2,6 1313.9
Palladium Pd 46 106.42 Solid 1828/1555/2831 3236/2963/5365 12.023 2.20 53.7 2,8,18,18 804.4
Phosphorus P 15 30.973761 Solid 317/44/111 554/280/537 1.823 2.19 72 2,8,5 1011.8
Platinum Pt 78 195.078 Solid 2041/1768/3215

4098/3825/6917

21.090 2.28 205.3 2,8,18,32,17,1 870
Plutonium Pu 94 (244) Solid 913/640/1184 3503/3230/5846 19.816 1.28 2,8,18,32,24,8,2 584.7
Polonium Po 84 (209) Solid 527/254/489 1235/962/1763 9.196 2.0 183.3 2,8,18,32,18,6 812.1
Potassium (Kalium) K 19 39.0983 Solid 337/63/146 1032/759/1398 0.856 0.82 48.4 2,8,8,1 418.8
Praseodymium Pr 59 140.90765 Solid 1204/931/1708 3563/3290/5954 6.640 1.13 50 2,8,18,21,8,2 527
Promethium Pm 61 (145) Solid 1373/1100/2012 3273/3000/5432 7.264 50 2,8,18,23,8,2 540
Protactinium Pa 91 231.03588 Solid 1845/1572/2861 4273/4000/232 15.370 1.5 2,8,18,32,20,9,2 568
Radium Ra 88 (226) Solid 973/700/1292 2010/1737/3158 5.0 0.9 2,8,18,32,18,8,2 509.3
Radon Rn 86 (222) Gas 202/-71/-96 211/-62/-79 0.00973 0 2,8,18,32,18,8 1037
Rhenium Re 75 186.207

Solid

3459/3186/5767 5869/5596/10105 21.020 1.9 14.5 2,8,18,32,13,2 760
Rhodium Rh 45 102.90550 Solid 2237/1964/3567 3968/3695/6683 12.450 2.28 109.7 2,8,18,16,1 719.7
Rubidium Rb 37 85.4678 Solid 312/39/103 961/688/1270 1.532 0.82 46.9 2,8,18,8,1 403.0
Ruthenium Ru 44 101.07 Solid 2607/2334/4233 4423/4150/7502 12.370 2.2 101.3 2,8,18,15,1 710.2
Samarium Sm 62 150.36 Solid 1345/1072/1961 2076/1803/3277 7.353 1.17 50 2,8,18,24,8,2 544.5
Scandium Sc 21 44.955910 Solid 1814/1541/2806 3103/2830/5126 2.985 1.36 18.1 2,8,9,2 633.1
Selenium Se 34 78.96 Solid 494/221/430 958/685/1265 4.819 2.55 195 2,8,18,6 941.0
Silicon Si 14 28.0855 Solid 1687/1414/2577 3173/2900/5252 2.330 1.90 133.6 2,8,4 786.5
Silver (Argentum) Ag 47 107.8682 Solid 1235/62/1763 2435/2162/3923 10.490 1.93 125.6 2,8,18,18,1 731.0
Sodium (Natrium) Na 11 22.989770 Solid 371/98/208 1156/883/1621 0.968 0.93 52.8 2,8,1 495.8
Strontium Sr 38 87.62 Solid 1050/777/1430 1655/1382/2519 2.630 0.95 5.03 2,8,18,8,2 549.5
Sulfur S 16 32.065 Solid 388/115/239 718/445/832 1.960 2.58 200 2,8,6 999.6
Tantalum Ta 73 180.9479 Solid 3290/3017/5462 5731/5458/9856 16.650 1.5 31 2,8,18,32,11,2 761
Technetium Tc 43 (98) Solid 2430/2457/3914 4538/4265/7709 11.500 1.9 53 2,8,18,13,2 702
Tellurium Te 52 127.60 Solid 723/450/841 1261/988/1810 6.240 2.1 190.2 2,8,18,18,6 869.3
Terbium Tb 65 158.92534 Solid 1629/1356/2473 3503/3230/5846 8.219 50 2,8,18,27,8,2 565.8
Thallium Tl 81 204.3833 Solid 577/304/579 1746/1473/2683 11.850 1.62 19.2 2,8,18,32,18,3 589.4
Thorium Th 90 232.0381 Solid 2023/1750/3182 5093/4820/8708 11.724 1.3 2,8,18,32,18,10,2 587
Thulium Tm 69 168.93421 Solid 1818/1545/2813

2223/1950/3542

9.321 1.25 50 2,8,18,31,8,2 596.7
Tin (Stannum) Sn 50 118.710 Solid 505/232/449 2875/2602/4715 7.310 1.96 107.3 2,8,18,18,4 708.6
Titanium Ti 22 47.867 Solid 1941/1668/3034 3560/3287/5948 4.507 1.54 7.6 2,8,10,2 658.8
Tungsten (Wolfram) W 74 183.84 Solid 3695/3422/6191 5828/5555/10031 19.250 2.36 78.6 2,8,18,32,12,2 770
Uranium U 92 238.02891 Solid 1408/1135/2075 4200/3927/7100 19.050 1.38 2,8,18,32,21,9,2 597.6
Vanadium V 23 50.9415 Solid 2183/1910/3170 3680/3407/6164 6.110 1.63 50.6 2,8,11,2 650.9
Xenon Xe 54 131.293 Gas 161/-112/-169

165/-108/-162

0,0059 2.6 0 2,8,18,18,8 1170.4
Ytterbium Yb 70 173.04 Solid 1092/819/1506 1469/1196/2185 6.570 50 2,8,18,32,8,2 603.4
Yttrium Y 39 88.90585 Solid 1799/1526/2779 3618/3345/6053 4.472 1.22 29.6 2,8,18,9,2 600
Zinc Zn 30 65.409 Solid 693/420/787 1180/907/1664 7.140 1.65 0 2,8,18,2 906.4
Zirconium Zr 40 91.224 Solid 2128/1855/3371 4682/4409/7968 6.511 1.33 41.1 2,8,18,10,2 640.1

1) Standard average atomic weights (IUPAC 1997) for the isotops naturally present in the element.

  • u = atomic mass unit,  1 u = 1.66 10-27 kg

2) Melting point is the temperature at which a substance changes from solid to liquid state.   Temperature converter

3) Boiling point is the temperature at which a substance changes from liquid to gas state.

4) Density (mass/volume) at standard temperature and pressure, given as gram/cm3. Standard temperature is equal to 0°C or 32°F and standard pressure is equal to 1 atm, 101.3kPa or 760 mmHg (torr)

5) Electronegativity given by the Pauling scale. Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons. The Pauling scale is the most commonly used. Fluorine (the most electronegative element) is assigned a value of 4.0, and values range down to caesium and francium which are the least electronegative at 0.7.

6) Electron affinity is most commonly defined as the energy released (Einitial+Efinal) when an additional electron is attached to a neutral atom or molecule(in gaseous phase) to form a negative ion. Another, equivalent definition is the energy required to detach an electron from the singly charged negative ion (energy for the process X-(g) -> X(g) + e-). It could also be described as a neutral atom's likelihood of gaining an electron. The values vary from 0 to 349 kJ/mole

7) Electron configuration per shell lists the number of electrons in each shell of electrons, starting from the inner shell.

8) 1st ionisation energy is the energy required to remove the most loosely held electron from one mole of gaseous atoms to produce 1 mole of gaseous ions each with a charge of 1+: X(g)  -->   X+(g)  +   e-   It could also be described as a neutral atom's likelihood of giving away an electron. Ionisation energies are measured in kJ mol-1 (kilojoules per mole). They vary from 380 up to 2372 kJ/mole.

Related Topics

  • Basics - The SI-system, unit converters, physical constants, drawing scales and more
  • Material Properties - Material properties for gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more
  • Density - Density of different solid materials, liquids and gases. Definitions and convertion calculators.
  • Boiling point - Documents giving boiling point of elements and different kind of chemical species at varying conditions
  • Melting point - freezing point - Documents giving melting or freezing point of elements and different kind of chemical species at varying conditions

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